Neonicotinoid Pesticides: New Findings Highlight Their Role in the Disappearance of Bees

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

European_honey_bee_extracts_nectar

European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Photo by John Severns, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Bees have been declining for years worldwide—this is a well-accepted fact. However, the “why” of this decline is still a matter of debate. Although it is likely that a combination of different factors is contributing to the global bee die-offs, increasing attention is now devoted to the toxic effects of a group of pesticides called neonicotinoids, or neonics for short. They are systemic pesticides—their solubility in water allows them to reach leaves, flowers, roots and stems, even pollen and nectar. One could therefore infer that these pesticides will likely kill not only the insects that farmers want to eliminate, but also pollinators. Continue reading

The Global Decline of Coral Reefs: Is There Hope for Recovery?

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

coral reef

Rainbow Reef, Fiji. Courtesy WorldFish, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

During the past few decades, coral reefs—the rainforests of the sea—have been declining at an alarming rate around the world. The threats faced by these extremely diverse and fragile ecosystems are numerous and difficult to control. In addition to weather-related damage, pollution, ocean acidification, coral mining, disease, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, coral reefs are subjected to the negative effects of global warming—increasing sea surface temperatures lead to coral bleaching, a process that makes corals become bone white and often die. A couple of years ago, David Gruber wrote in the New York Times, “It is difficult being a coral reef scientist in 2012. The system we are studying is dwindling—and we feel there is an urgent need to understand the ecosystem while it still has a pulse. Coral reefs are on target to be one of the first major ecosystems to be pushed to an unproductive state.” Continue reading

Plastiglomerates: The Beaches of Hawaii Yield a New Type of Stone

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

We’re all familiar with our impact on the planet – the changes we cause on the chemical composition of the atmosphere through deforestation and burning of fossil fuels, the spread of invasive species caused by the removal of biogeographical barriers, the destruction of coral reefs due to overfishing and ocean acidification, the pollution of oceans and lakes by discarded plastics. The list goes on and on.

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BMAA, Neurodegenerative Damage, and the Need for Monitoring

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

BMAA

BMAA, Wikimedia Commons, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

BMAA, or beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, is a potent neurotoxin linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease), Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. Produced by virtually every known species of cyanobacteria, BMAA increases in concentration as it moves up the food chain—a process known as biomagnification or bioaccumulation—in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Continue reading

Pesticides and Mosquito Control for West Nile Virus: Potential Toxic Effects on Aquatic Systems

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

The influence of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is a topic that generates intense debate, mostly because these effects depend on a variety of intertwined, variable factors – wealth of nations, healthcare infrastructure, availability of vaccines and drugs as well as ability to control vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, snails, and others. Vector control is, indeed, one of the most important measures included in the existing global strategy to fight infectious diseases. Continue reading

Resurrection Ecology: Extinct Species and the Changing Environment

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

Extinction is, sometimes, merely a life stage. The resurrection of extinct species is not only possible with modern science, but it is also helpful to study evolutionary changes that occur because of natural events or anthropogenic stressors. As long as their dormant propagules are preserved in permafrost, soils or sediments, species can be brought back to life—sometimes. Resurrection ecology allows researchers to identify various stages of evolution by comparing extinct, resurrected species with their living descendants. Continue reading

Bristol Bay: The Impact of Potential Large-Scale Mining on Salmon and Wetlands

By Roberta Attanasio, IEAM Blog Editor

In a land of pristine rivers and uncontaminated wilderness, the indigenous people of Bristol Bay have shared bountiful catches of salmon for thousands of years. However, the Pebble Mine—something that has been defined as just an idea—could be changing their way of life. An assessment released last month by the EPA shows the extent of the potential impact that the development of the mine could have on indigenous people and their land. Continue reading